Krummholz is a German word that means bent wood. It’s used in this country as a descriptor for trees like this one that I photographed two years ago north of Mendocino CA in Jug Handle State Reserve. The salt spray off of the Pacific Ocean, which is very close, inhibits growth of the tree upward so it has expanded horizontally with its branches. My guess is that its is very old and has taken hundreds of years to reach this gnarly state. It was a wonder to observe and photograph.